From: Mathematical modeling of vaporization during laser-induced thermotherapy in liver tissue

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Optical (native): | |

Absorption coefficient \(\mu _{an}\) [m^{−1}] | 50 |

Scattering coefficient \(\mu _{sn}\) [m^{−1}] | 8000 |

Anisotropy factor \(g_{n}\) | 0.97 |

Optical (coagulated): | |

Absorption coefficient \(\mu _{ac}\) [m^{−1}] | 60 |

Scattering coefficient \(\mu _{sc}\) [m^{−1}] | 30,000 |

Anisotropy factor \(g_{c}\) | 0.95 |

Thermal: | |

Heat conductivity κ [W m^{−1} K^{−1}] | 0.518 |

Heat capacity \(C_{p}\) [J kg^{−1} K^{−1}] | 3640 |

Tissue density ρ [kg m^{−3}] | 1137 |

Heat transfer coefficient \(\alpha _{\text{cool}} \) [W m^{−2} K^{−1}] | 250 |

Heat transfer coefficient \(\alpha _{\text{amb}} \) [W m^{−2} K^{−1}] | 44 |

Damage: | |

Damage rate constant A [s^{−1}] | 3.1 × 10^{98} |

Damage activation energy \(E_{a}\) [J mol^{−1} K^{−1}] | 6.3 × 10^{5} |

Universal gas constant R [J mol^{−1} K^{−1}] | 8.31 |

Vaporization: | |

Latent heat of water λ [J kg^{−1}] | 2257 × 10^{3} |