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Table 2 Physical parameters for LITT in ex-vivo porcine liver tissue

From: Mathematical modeling of vaporization during laser-induced thermotherapy in liver tissue

ParameterValue
Optical (native): 
 Absorption coefficient \(\mu _{an}\) [m−1]50
 Scattering coefficient \(\mu _{sn}\) [m−1]8000
 Anisotropy factor \(g_{n}\)0.97
Optical (coagulated): 
 Absorption coefficient \(\mu _{ac}\) [m−1]60
 Scattering coefficient \(\mu _{sc}\) [m−1]30,000
 Anisotropy factor \(g_{c}\)0.95
Thermal: 
 Heat conductivity κ [W m−1 K−1]0.518
 Heat capacity \(C_{p}\) [J kg−1 K−1]3640
 Tissue density ρ [kg m−3]1137
 Heat transfer coefficient \(\alpha _{\text{cool}} \) [W m−2 K−1]250
 Heat transfer coefficient \(\alpha _{\text{amb}} \) [W m−2 K−1]44
Damage: 
 Damage rate constant A [s−1]3.1 × 1098
 Damage activation energy \(E_{a}\) [J mol−1 K−1]6.3 × 105
 Universal gas constant R [J mol−1 K−1]8.31
Vaporization: 
 Latent heat of water λ [J kg−1]2257 × 103